RoBIOS - Mobile Robot Library

RoBIOS-7 Library Functions

Version 7.2, Jan. 2020-- RoBIOS is the operating system for the EyeBot controller.
The following libraries are available for programming the EyeBot controller in C/C++ or Python.
Unless noted otherwise, return codes are 0 when successful and non-zero if an error has occurred.

In application source files include: #include "eyebot.h"
Compile application to include RoBIOS library: $gccarm myfile.c -o myfile.o

LCD Output

int LCDPrintf(const char *format, ...);     // Print string and arguments on LCD
int LCDSetPrintf(int row, int column, const char *format, ...);   // Printf from given position
int LCDClear(void);                         // Clear the LCD display and display buffers
int LCDSetPos(int row, int column);         // Set cursor position in pixels for subsequent printf
int LCDGetPos(int *row, int *column);       // Read current cursor position
int LCDSetColor(COLOR fg, COLOR bg);        // Set color for subsequent printf
int LCDSetFont(int font, int variation);    // Set font for subsequent print operation
int LCDSetFontSize(int fontsize);           // Set font-size (7..18) for subsequent print operation
int LCDSetMode(int mode);                   // Set LCD Mode (0=default)
int LCDMenu(char *st1, char *st2, char *st3, char *st4); // Set menu entries for soft buttons
int LCDMenuI(int pos, char *string, COLOR fg, COLOR bg); // Set menu for i-th entry with color [1..4]
int LCDGetSize(int *x, int *y);                          // Get LCD resolution in pixels
int LCDPixel(int x, int y, COLOR col);                   // Set one pixel on LCD
COLOR LCDGetPixel (int x, int y);                        // Read pixel value from LCD
int LCDLine(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2, COLOR col);  // Draw line
int LCDArea(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2, COLOR col, int fill); // Draw filled/hollow rectangle
int LCDCircle(int x1, int y1, int size, COLOR col, int fill);     // Draw filled/hollow circle
int LCDImageSize(int t);                                 // Define image type for LCD (default QVGA; 0,0; full)
int LCDImageStart(int x, int y, int xs, int ys);         // Define image start position and size (default 0,0; max_x, max_y)
int LCDImage(BYTE *img);                                 // Print color image at screen start pos. and size
int LCDImageGray(BYTE *g);                               // Print gray image [0..255] black..white
int LCDImageBinary(BYTE *b);                             // Print binary image [0..1]
int LCDRefresh(void);                                    // Refresh LCD output
 Font Names and Variations:
NORMAL (default), BOLD

Color Constants (COLOR is data type "int" in RGB order):
RED (0xFF0000), GREEN (0x00FF00), BLUE (0x0000FF), WHITE (0xFFFFFF), GRAY (0x808080), BLACK (0)

LCD Modes:


int KEYGet(void);            // Blocking read (and wait) for key press (returns KEY1..KEY4)
int KEYRead(void);           // Non-blocking read of key press (returns NOKEY=0 if no key)
int KEYWait(int key);        // Wait until specified key has been pressed (use ANYKEY for any key)
int KEYGetXY (int *x, int *y);  // Blocking read for touch at any position, returns coordinates
int KEYReadXY(int *x, int *y);  // Non-blocking read for touch at any position, returns coordinates
 Key Constants:


int CAMInit(int resolution);    // Change camera resolution (will also set IP resolution)
int CAMRelease(void);           // Stops camera stream
int CAMGet(BYTE *buf);          // Read one color camera image
int CAMGetGray(BYTE *buf);      // Read gray scale camera image
For the following functions, the Python API differs slightly as indicated.
def CAMGet    () -> POINTER(c_byte):
def CAMGetGray() -> POINTER(c_byte):
Resolution Settings:
QQVGA(160x120), QVGA(320x240), VGA(640x480), CAM1MP(1296x730), CAMHD(1920x1080), CAM5MP(2592x1944), CUSTOM (LCD only)
Variables CAMWIDTH, CAMHEIGHT, CAMPIXELS (=width*height) and CAMSIZE (=3*CAMPIXELS) will be automatically set,
(BYTE is data type "unsigned char").

Constant sizes in bytes for color images and number of pixels:

Data Types:
typedef QQVGAcol  BYTE  [120][160][3];    typedef QQVGAgray  BYTE [120][160];
typedef QVGAcol   BYTE  [240][320][3];    typedef QVGAgray   BYTE [240][320];
typedef VGAcol    BYTE  [480][640][3];    typedef VGAgray    BYTE [480][640];
typedef CAM1MPcol BYTE [730][1296][3];    typedef CAM1MPgray BYTE [730][1296];
typedef CAMHDcol  BYTE[1080][1920][3];    typedef CAMHDgray  BYTE[1080][1920];
typedef CAM5MPcol BYTE[1944][2592][3];    typedef CAM5MPgray BYTE[1944][2592];

Image Processing

Basic image processing functions using the previously set camera resolution are included in the RoBIOS library. For more complex functions see the OpenCV library.
int   IPSetSize(int resolution);                                // Set IP resolution using CAM constants (also automatically set by CAMInit)
int   IPReadFile(char *filename, BYTE* img);                    // Read PNM file, fill/crop if req.; return 3:color, 2:gray, 1:b/w, -1:error
int   IPWriteFile(char *filename, BYTE* img);                   // Write color PNM file
int   IPWriteFileGray(char *filename, BYTE* gray);              // Write gray scale PGM file
void  IPLaplace(BYTE* grayIn, BYTE* grayOut);                   // Laplace edge detection on gray image
void  IPSobel(BYTE* grayIn, BYTE* grayOut);                     // Sobel edge detection on gray image
void  IPCol2Gray(BYTE* imgIn, BYTE* grayOut);                   // Transfer color to gray
void  IPGray2Col(BYTE* imgIn, BYTE* colOut);                    // Transfer gray to color              
void  IPRGB2Col (BYTE* r, BYTE* g, BYTE* b, BYTE* imgOut);      // Transform 3*gray to color
void  IPCol2HSI (BYTE* img, BYTE* h, BYTE* s, BYTE* i);         // Transform RGB image to HSI
void  IPOverlay(BYTE* c1, BYTE* c2, BYTE* cOut);                // Overlay c2 onto c1, all color images
void  IPOverlayGray(BYTE* g1, BYTE* g2, COLOR col, BYTE* cOut); // Overlay gray image g2 onto g1, using col
COLOR IPPRGB2Col(BYTE r, BYTE g, BYTE b);                       // PIXEL: RGB to color
void  IPPCol2RGB(COLOR col, BYTE* r, BYTE* g, BYTE* b);         // PIXEL: color to RGB
void  IPPCol2HSI(COLOR c, BYTE* h, BYTE* s, BYTE* i);           // PIXEL: RGB to HSI for pixel
BYTE  IPPRGB2Hue(BYTE r, BYTE g, BYTE b);                       // PIXEL: Convert RGB to hue (0 for gray values)
void  IPPRGB2HSI(BYTE r, BYTE g, BYTE b, BYTE* h, BYTE* s, BYTE* i); // PIXEL: Convert RGB to hue, sat, int; hue=0 for gray values
For the following functions, the Python API differs slightly as indicated.
from typing import List
from ctypes import c_int, c_byte, POINTER

def IPLaplace    (grayIn: POINTER(c_byte)) -> POINTER(c_byte):
def IPSobel      (grayIn: POINTER(c_byte)) -> POINTER(c_byte):
def IPCol2Gray   (img: POINTER(c_byte))    -> POINTER(c_byte):
def IPCol2HSI    (img: POINTER(c_byte))    -> POINTER(c_byte) -> List[c_byte, c_byte, c_byte]:
def IPOverlay    (c1: POINTER(c_byte), c2: POINTER(c_byte))   -> POINTER(c_byte):
def IPOverlayGray(g1: POINTER(c_byte), g2: POINTER(c_byte))   -> POINTER(c_byte):

System Functions

char * OSExecute(char* command);            // Execute Linux program in background
int OSVersion(char* buf);                   // RoBIOS Version
int OSVersionIO(char* buf);                 // RoBIOS-IO Board Version
int OSMachineSpeed(void);                   // Speed in MHz
int OSMachineType(void);                    // Machine type
int OSMachineName(char* buf);               // Machine name
int OSMachineID(void);                      // Machine ID derived from MAC address


int   OSWait(int n);                                    // Wait for n/1000 sec
TIMER OSAttachTimer(int scale, void (*fct)(void));   	// Add fct to 1000Hz/scale timer
int   OSDetachTimer(TIMER t);                           // Remove fct from 1000Hz/scale timer
int OSGetTime(int *hrs,int *mins,int *secs,int *ticks); // Get system time (ticks in 1/1000 sec)
int OSGetCount(void);                                   // Count in 1/1000 sec since system start

USB/Serial Communication

int  SERInit(int interface, int baud,int handshake); // Init communication (see parameters below), interface number as in HDT file
int  SERSendChar(int interface, char ch);            // Send single character
int  SERSend(int interface, char *buf);              // Send string (Null terminated)
char SERReceiveChar(int interface);                  // Receive single character
int  SERReceive(int interface, char *buf, int size); // Receive String (Null terminated), returns number of chars received
int  SERFlush(int interface);                        // Flush interface buffers
int  SERClose(int interface);                        // Close Interface
Communication Parameters:
Baudrate: 50 .. 230400
Handshake: NONE, RTSCTS
Interface: 0 (serial port), 1..20 (USB devices, names are assigned via HDT entries)


int AUBeep(void);                               // Play beep sound
int AUPlay(char* filename);                     // Play audio sample in background (mp3 or wave)
int AUDone(void);                               // Check if AUPlay has finished
int AUMicrophone(void);                         // Return microphone A-to-D sample value
Use Analog data functions to record microphone sounds (channel 8).

Distance Sensors

Position Sensitive Devices (PSDs) are using infrared beams to measure distance and need to be calibrated in HDT to get correct distance readings.
LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a single-axis rotating laser scanner.
int PSDGet(int psd);                            // Read distance value in mm from PSD sensor [1..6]
int PSDGetRaw(int psd);                         // Read raw value from PSD sensor [1..6]
int LIDARGet(int distance[]);                   // Measure distances in [mm]; default 360° and 360 points
int LIDARSet(int range, int tilt, int points);  // range [1..360°], tilt angle down, number of points
PSD Constants:
assuming PSD sensors in these directions are connected to ports 1, 2, 3, 4.

LIDAR Constants:
LIDAR_POINTS Total number of points returned
LIDAR_RANGE  Angular range covered, e.g. 180°

Servos and Motors

Motor and Servo positions can be calibrated through HDT entries.
int SERVOSet(int servo, int angle);             // Set servo [1..14] position to [1..255] or power down (0)
int SERVOSetRaw (int servo, int angle);         // Set servo [1..14] position bypassing HDT
int SERVORange(int servo, int low, int high);   // Set servo [1..14] limits in 1/100 sec
int MOTORDrive(int motor, int speed);           // Set motor [1..4] speed in percent [-100 ..+100]
int MOTORDriveRaw(int motor, int speed);        // Set motor [1..4] speed bypassing HDT
int MOTORPID(int motor, int p, int i, int d);   // Set motor [1..4] PID controller values [1..255]
int MOTORPIDOff(int motor);                     // Stop PID control loop
int MOTORSpeed(int motor, int ticks);           // Set controlled motor speed in ticks/100 sec
int ENCODERRead(int quad);                      // Read quadrature encoder [1..4]
int ENCODERReset(int quad);                     // Set encoder value to 0 [1..4]

V-Omega Driving Interface

This is a high level wheel control for differential driving. It always uses motor 1 (left) and motor 2 (right).
Motor spinning directions, motor gearing and vehicle width are set in the HDT file.
int VWSetSpeed(int linSpeed, int angSpeed);     // Set fixed linSpeed  [mm/s] and [degrees/s]
int VWGetSpeed(int *linSspeed, int *angSpeed);  // Read current speeds [mm/s] and [degrees/s]
int VWSetPosition(int x, int y, int phi);       // Set robot position to x, y [mm], phi [degrees]
int VWGetPosition(int *x, int *y, int *phi);    // Get robot position as x, y [mm], phi [degrees]
int VWStraight(int dist, int lin_speed);        // Drive straight, dist [mm], lin. speed [mm/s]
int VWTurn(int angle, int ang_speed);           // Turn on spot, angle [degrees], ang. speed [degrees/s]
int VWCurve(int dist, int angle, int lin_speed);// Drive Curve, dist [mm], angle (orientation change) [degrees], lin. speed [mm/s]
int VWDrive(int dx, int dy, int lin_speed);     // Drive x[mm] straight and y[mm] left, x>|y|
int VWRemain(void);                             // Return remaining drive distance in [mm]
int VWDone(void);                               // Non-blocking check whether drive is finished (1) or not (0)
int VWWait(void);                               // Suspend current thread until drive operation has finished
int VWStalled(void);                            // Returns number of stalled motor [1..2], 3 if both stalled, 0 if none
All VW functions return 0 if OK and 1 if error (e.g. destination unreachable)

Digital and Analog Input/Output

int DIGITALSetup(int io, char direction);       // Set IO line [1..16] to i-n/o-ut/I-n pull-up/J-n pull-down
int DIGITALRead(int io);                        // Read and return individual input line [1..16]
int DIGITALReadAll(void);                       // Read and return all 16 io lines
int DIGITALWrite(int io, int state);            // Write individual output [1..16] to 0 or 1
int ANALOGRead(int channel);                    // Read analog channel [1..8]
int ANALOGVoltage(void);                        // Read analog supply voltage in [0.01 Volt]
int ANALOGRecord(int channel, int iterations);  // Record analog data (e.g. 8 for microphone) at 1kHz (non-blocking)
int ANALOGTransfer(BYTE* buffer);               // Transfer previously recorded data; returns number of bytes
Default for digital lines: [1..8] are input with pull-up, [9..16] are output
Default for analog  lines: [0..8] with 0: supply-voltage and 8: microphone
IO settings are: i: input, o: output, I: input with pull-up res., J: input with pull-down res.

IR Remote Control

These commands allow sending commands to an EyeBot via a standard infrared TV remote (IRTV). IRTV models can be enabled or disabled via a HDT entry.
Supported IRTV models are: Chunghop L960E Learn Remote
int IRTVGet(void);                              // Blocking read of IRTV command
int IRTVRead(void);                             // Non-blocking read, return 0 if nothing
int IRTVFlush(void);                            // Empty IRTV buffers
int IRTVGetStatus(void);                        // Checks to see if IRTV is activated (1) or off (0)
Defined Constants for IRTV buttons are:

Radio Communication

These functions require a WiFi modules for each robot, one of them (or an external router) in DHCP mode, all others in slave mode.
Radio can be activated/deactivated via a HDT entry. The names of all participating nodes in a network can also be stored in the HDT file.
int RADIOInit(void);                            // Start radio communication
int RADIOGetID(void);                           // Get own radio ID
int RADIOSend(int id, char* buf);               // Send string (Null terminated) to ID destination
int RADIOReceive(int *id_no, char* buf, int size); // Wait for message, then fill in sender ID and data, returns number of chars received
int RADIOCheck(void);                           // Check if message is waiting: 0 or 1 (non-blocking); -1 if error
int RADIOStatus(int IDlist[]);                  // Returns number of robots (incl. self) and list of IDs in network
int RADIORelease(void);                         // Terminate radio communication
ID numbers match last byte of robots' IP addresses.
For the following functions, the Python API differs slightly as indicated.
def RADIOReceive(int size) -> [id_no, buf]  # max 1024 Bytes
def RADIOStatus()          -> int IDList[]  # max  256 entries


For Multitasking, simply use the pthread functions.
A number of multitasking sample programs are included in the demo/MULTI directory.

Simulation only

These functions will only be available when run in a simulation environment, in order to get ground truth information and to repeat experiments with identical setup.
void SIMGetRobot (int id, int *x, int *y, int *z, int *phi);
void SIMSetRobot (int id, int  x, int  y, int  z, int  phi);
void SIMGetObject(int id, int *x, int *y, int *z, int *phi);
void SIMSetObject(int id, int  x, int  y, int  z, int  phi);
int  SIMGetRobotCount()
int  SIMGetObjectCount()
id=0 means own robot; id numbers run from 1..n

Thomas Bräunl, Remi Keat, Marcus Pham, 1996-2020